(Source: cerceos)
sagansense:

Into Deepest Space: The Birth of the ALMA Observatory is an independent documentary about the hardships and eventual achievements of all those involved with ALMA from conception to implementation.
“It’s so far beyond any [existing] capability in the millimeter domain," said astronomer Ethan Schreier, president of Associated Universities Inc., which oversaw North America’s contribution to ALMA. "There’s nothing that will compete with this for a very long time. When you introduce a totally new capability, you always discover new things that you don’t predict." [source]
A decade in the making, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array was built atop the Chajnantor plateau (16,570 feet (5,050 meters) above sea level) in order to provide the clearest window to the universe. ALMA will reveal early galaxy formation and peer beyond the interstellar/planetary dust clouds hiding planetary formation in action. A product of North America, Europe, and East Asia with the cooperation of Chile, this is what happens when you collaborate effectively across artificial borders for the sake of exploration and discovery. The dishes themselves weigh around 100 tons each, comprised of ultra-stable CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) for the reflector base, possessing reflecting panels of rhodium-coated nickel.
ALMA Now a Full-Fledged Observatory (Universe Today)
ALMA will observe in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (submillimeter light has slightly shorter wavelengths than millimeter light, whose wavelengths are measured in millimeters). These ranges fall along the boundary between the radio and microwave bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, with longer wavelengths than optical light. This band of light allows astronomers to probe into the dark cores of gas clouds to study star and planet formation, and to collect distant light that’s been shifted toward the red end of the spectrum.
ALMA turns its eyes to Centaurus A (NRAO)
Formalhaut: Earth-Sized Planets Only 25 Light Years Away? (science2.0)
The electronic detector or, “front end” that amplifies/converts the radio waves collected per each antenna must be stabilized at 4 degrees Kelvin (- 452 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 269 degrees Celsius) for prevention of introducing noise to the signal. It’s a pristine engineering feat. Costing $1.4 billion (split across North America, Europe, and East Asia), whereby $500 million was contributed by U.S. taxpayers. [source]
Sentinel in the cosmic darkness (Pesquisa)
ALMA is also featured in the IMAX film Hidden Universe 3D and continuously heralded as a catalyst for the field of astrochemistry. Watch ALMA at work and browse my archive of related posts
The acronym ALMA was provided due to the Spanish meaning of the Italian word Alma, meaning “soul.” The Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array was designated its name because the astronomers/astrophysicists state the observatory will peer into stars’ souls.
“Every single field you can think of, from our solar system to star formation of all masses in our galaxy and nearby galaxies, to even detecting light from the first stars that formed…I don’t think there’s any field of astronomy that will remain untouched by the advent of ALMA.”— Dr. Crystal Brogan, Astronomer, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)
More on ALMA here…

sagansense:

Into Deepest Space: The Birth of the ALMA Observatory is an independent documentary about the hardships and eventual achievements of all those involved with ALMA from conception to implementation.

It’s so far beyond any [existing] capability in the millimeter domain," said astronomer Ethan Schreier, president of Associated Universities Inc., which oversaw North America’s contribution to ALMA. "There’s nothing that will compete with this for a very long time. When you introduce a totally new capability, you always discover new things that you don’t predict." [source]

A decade in the making, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array was built atop the Chajnantor plateau (16,570 feet (5,050 meters) above sea level) in order to provide the clearest window to the universe. ALMA will reveal early galaxy formation and peer beyond the interstellar/planetary dust clouds hiding planetary formation in action. A product of North America, Europe, and East Asia with the cooperation of Chile, this is what happens when you collaborate effectively across artificial borders for the sake of exploration and discovery. The dishes themselves weigh around 100 tons each, comprised of ultra-stable CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) for the reflector base, possessing reflecting panels of rhodium-coated nickel.

imageALMA Now a Full-Fledged Observatory (Universe Today)

ALMA will observe in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (submillimeter light has slightly shorter wavelengths than millimeter light, whose wavelengths are measured in millimeters). These ranges fall along the boundary between the radio and microwave bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, with longer wavelengths than optical light. This band of light allows astronomers to probe into the dark cores of gas clouds to study star and planet formation, and to collect distant light that’s been shifted toward the red end of the spectrum.

imageALMA turns its eyes to Centaurus A (NRAO)

imageFormalhaut: Earth-Sized Planets Only 25 Light Years Away? (science2.0)

The electronic detector or, “front end” that amplifies/converts the radio waves collected per each antenna must be stabilized at 4 degrees Kelvin (- 452 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 269 degrees Celsius) for prevention of introducing noise to the signal. It’s a pristine engineering feat. Costing $1.4 billion (split across North America, Europe, and East Asia), whereby $500 million was contributed by U.S. taxpayers. [source]

imageSentinel in the cosmic darkness (Pesquisa)

ALMA is also featured in the IMAX film Hidden Universe 3D and continuously heralded as a catalyst for the field of astrochemistry. Watch ALMA at work and browse my archive of related posts

The acronym ALMA was provided due to the Spanish meaning of the Italian word Alma, meaning “soul.” The Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array was designated its name because the astronomers/astrophysicists state the observatory will peer into stars’ souls.

Every single field you can think of, from our solar system to star formation of all masses in our galaxy and nearby galaxies, to even detecting light from the first stars that formed…I don’t think there’s any field of astronomy that will remain untouched by the advent of ALMA.
— Dr. Crystal Brogan, Astronomer, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)

imageMore on ALMA here…

(Source: sagansense)

trigonometry-is-my-bitch:

Gravity wells - 

A Gravity well or gravitational well is defined as “a conceptual model of the gravitational field surrounding a body in space.”

The more massive the body, the deeper and more extensive the gravity well associated with it. The Sun is very massive, relative to other bodies in the Solar System, so its gravity well appears “deep” and far-reaching.

(picture a very heavy object sinking deep into a bed mattress; the more mass the object has the deeper it sinks in and creates a deeper sinkhole; a deeper sink hole will pull in any nearby objects towards the centre object with greater influence. Objects of  mass bend the fabric of spacetime this way also as the theory of general relativity explains) 

a video example

currentsinbiology:

Baby corals and fish smell their way to the best home
New research suggests that baby fish and coral larvae smell their way to neighborhoods where the living is good. Scents emitted by certain species of adult corals draw fish and coral larvae to healthy reefs, while the noxious odor of out-of-control seaweed drives them away from damaged ecosystems.

“These are fantastic results,” says Jelle Atema, a chemical and behavioral ecologist at Boston University. The findings demonstrate “dramatic differences” in coral or fish behavior, he says, and “how important chemical signals are in regulating the interactions between corals and seaweeds and fishes.”

 Photograph: Jim Maragos/AP

currentsinbiology:

Baby corals and fish smell their way to the best home

New research suggests that baby fish and coral larvae smell their way to neighborhoods where the living is good. Scents emitted by certain species of adult corals draw fish and coral larvae to healthy reefs, while the noxious odor of out-of-control seaweed drives them away from damaged ecosystems.

“These are fantastic results,” says Jelle Atema, a chemical and behavioral ecologist at Boston University. The findings demonstrate “dramatic differences” in coral or fish behavior, he says, and “how important chemical signals are in regulating the interactions between corals and seaweeds and fishes.”

 Photograph: Jim Maragos/AP

neurosciencestuff:

Mind and body: Scientists identify immune system link to mental illness
Children with high everyday levels of a protein released into the blood in response to infection are at greater risk of developing depression and psychosis in adulthood, according to new research which suggests a role for the immune system in mental illness.
The study, published today in JAMA Psychiatry, indicates that mental illness and chronic physical illness such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes may share common biological mechanisms.
When we are exposed to an infection, for example influenza or a stomach bug, our immune system fights back to control and remove the infection. During this process, immune cells flood the blood stream with proteins such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), a tell-tale marker of infection. However, even when we are healthy, our bodies carry trace levels of these proteins – known as ‘inflammatory markers’ – which rise exponentially in response to infection.
Now, researchers have carried out the first ever longitudinal study – a study that follows the same cohort of people over a long period of time – to examine the link between these markers in childhood and subsequent mental illness.
A team of scientists led by the University of Cambridge studied a sample of 4,500 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children – also known as Children of the 90s – taking blood samples at age 9 and following up at age 18 to see if they had experienced episodes of depression or psychosis. The team divided the individuals into three groups, depending on whether their everyday levels of IL-6 were low, medium or high. They found that those children in the ‘high’ group were nearly two times more likely to have experienced depression or psychosis than those in the ‘low’ group.
Dr Golam Khandaker from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, who led the study, says: “Our immune system acts like a thermostat, turned down low most of the time, but cranked up when we have an infection. In some people, the thermostat is always set slightly higher, behaving as if they have a persistent low level infection – these people appear to be at a higher risk of developing depression and psychosis. It’s too early to say whether this association is causal, and we are carrying out additional studies to examine this association further.”
The research indicates that chronic physical illness such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes may share a common mechanism with mental illness. People with depression and schizophrenia are known to have a much higher risk of developing heart disease and diabetes, and elevated levels of IL-6 have previously been shown to increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Professor Peter Jones, Head of the Department of Psychiatry and senior author of the study, says: “Inflammation may be a common mechanism that influences both our physical and mental health. It is possible that early life adversity and stress lead to persistent increase in levels of IL-6 and other inflammatory markers in our body, which, in turn, increase the risk of a number of chronic physical and mental illness.”
Indeed, low birth weight, a marker of impaired foetal development, is associated with increased everyday levels of inflammatory markers as well as greater risks of heart disease, diabetes, depression and schizophrenia in adults.
This potential common mechanism could help explain why physical exercise and diet, classic ways of reducing risk of heart disease, for example, are also thought to improve mood and help depression. The group is now planning additional studies to confirm whether inflammation is a common link between chronic physical and mental illness.
The research also hints at interesting ways of potentially treating illnesses such as depression: anti-inflammatory drugs. Treatment with anti-inflammatory agents leads to levels of inflammatory markers falling to normal. Previous research has suggested that anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin used in conjunction with antipsychotic treatments may be more effective than just the antipsychotics themselves. A multicentre trial is currently underway, into whether the antibiotic minocycline, used for the treatment of acne, can be used to treat lack of enjoyment, social withdrawal, apathy and other so called negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Minocycline is able to penetrate the ‘blood-brain barrier’, a highly selective permeability barrier which protects the central nervous system from potentially harmful substances circulating in our blood.
The ‘blood-brain barrier’ is also at the centre of a potential puzzle raised by research such as today’s research: how can the immune system have an effect in the brain when many inflammatory markers and antibodies cannot penetrate this barrier? Studies in mice suggest that the answer may lie in the vagus nerve, which connects the brain to the abdomen. When activated by inflammatory markers in the gut, it sends a signal to the brain, where immune cells produce proteins such as IL-6, leading to increased metabolism (and hence decreased levels) of the ‘happiness hormone’ serotonin in the brain. Similarly, the signals trigger an increase in toxic chemicals such as nitric oxide, quinolonic acid, and kynurenic acid, which are bad for the functioning of nerve cells.

neurosciencestuff:

Mind and body: Scientists identify immune system link to mental illness

Children with high everyday levels of a protein released into the blood in response to infection are at greater risk of developing depression and psychosis in adulthood, according to new research which suggests a role for the immune system in mental illness.

The study, published today in JAMA Psychiatry, indicates that mental illness and chronic physical illness such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes may share common biological mechanisms.

When we are exposed to an infection, for example influenza or a stomach bug, our immune system fights back to control and remove the infection. During this process, immune cells flood the blood stream with proteins such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), a tell-tale marker of infection. However, even when we are healthy, our bodies carry trace levels of these proteins – known as ‘inflammatory markers’ – which rise exponentially in response to infection.

Now, researchers have carried out the first ever longitudinal study – a study that follows the same cohort of people over a long period of time – to examine the link between these markers in childhood and subsequent mental illness.

A team of scientists led by the University of Cambridge studied a sample of 4,500 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children – also known as Children of the 90s – taking blood samples at age 9 and following up at age 18 to see if they had experienced episodes of depression or psychosis. The team divided the individuals into three groups, depending on whether their everyday levels of IL-6 were low, medium or high. They found that those children in the ‘high’ group were nearly two times more likely to have experienced depression or psychosis than those in the ‘low’ group.

Dr Golam Khandaker from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, who led the study, says: “Our immune system acts like a thermostat, turned down low most of the time, but cranked up when we have an infection. In some people, the thermostat is always set slightly higher, behaving as if they have a persistent low level infection – these people appear to be at a higher risk of developing depression and psychosis. It’s too early to say whether this association is causal, and we are carrying out additional studies to examine this association further.”

The research indicates that chronic physical illness such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes may share a common mechanism with mental illness. People with depression and schizophrenia are known to have a much higher risk of developing heart disease and diabetes, and elevated levels of IL-6 have previously been shown to increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Professor Peter Jones, Head of the Department of Psychiatry and senior author of the study, says: “Inflammation may be a common mechanism that influences both our physical and mental health. It is possible that early life adversity and stress lead to persistent increase in levels of IL-6 and other inflammatory markers in our body, which, in turn, increase the risk of a number of chronic physical and mental illness.”

Indeed, low birth weight, a marker of impaired foetal development, is associated with increased everyday levels of inflammatory markers as well as greater risks of heart disease, diabetes, depression and schizophrenia in adults.

This potential common mechanism could help explain why physical exercise and diet, classic ways of reducing risk of heart disease, for example, are also thought to improve mood and help depression. The group is now planning additional studies to confirm whether inflammation is a common link between chronic physical and mental illness.

The research also hints at interesting ways of potentially treating illnesses such as depression: anti-inflammatory drugs. Treatment with anti-inflammatory agents leads to levels of inflammatory markers falling to normal. Previous research has suggested that anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin used in conjunction with antipsychotic treatments may be more effective than just the antipsychotics themselves. A multicentre trial is currently underway, into whether the antibiotic minocycline, used for the treatment of acne, can be used to treat lack of enjoyment, social withdrawal, apathy and other so called negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Minocycline is able to penetrate the ‘blood-brain barrier’, a highly selective permeability barrier which protects the central nervous system from potentially harmful substances circulating in our blood.

The ‘blood-brain barrier’ is also at the centre of a potential puzzle raised by research such as today’s research: how can the immune system have an effect in the brain when many inflammatory markers and antibodies cannot penetrate this barrier? Studies in mice suggest that the answer may lie in the vagus nerve, which connects the brain to the abdomen. When activated by inflammatory markers in the gut, it sends a signal to the brain, where immune cells produce proteins such as IL-6, leading to increased metabolism (and hence decreased levels) of the ‘happiness hormone’ serotonin in the brain. Similarly, the signals trigger an increase in toxic chemicals such as nitric oxide, quinolonic acid, and kynurenic acid, which are bad for the functioning of nerve cells.

physics-bitch:

  • Mathematically anything could become a black hole if it is compressed enough (schwarzschiled radius). For the earth, this would be about the size of a peanut.
  • They seem to be caused by large suns that run out of fuel then collapse in on themselves.
  • As a black hole is caused by such a…

thatscienceguy:

Guys looks what i found on Amazon!!!!image

An hourglass that uses magnetic fluid!

and in case you forgot how awesome magnetic fluid is…

image

Heres the link! go buy one! (or two and send me one, cause im poor, even though its only $20…)

(Source: amazon.com)

dorkly:

The Pros and Cons of Fictional Pets

Dorkly.com is a place with ComicsArticles and VideosGo there!

(Source: dorkly.com)

physics-bitch:

image

  • A good way to get an idea of what this is like is through water. Water has four different forms it could take depending on the conditions; frost, snow, ice and rime. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is sort of like this.
  • At the start of the big bang there was a single force which started off…
thenewenlightenmentage:

The science that stumped Einstein
In 1908, the physics world woke up to a puzzle whose layers have continued to stump the greatest scientists of the century ever since. That year, Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes cooled mercury down to -450° Fahrenheit and discovered—to his astonishment—that it could conduct electricity perfectly. And then for the next 50 years, no one could explain why.
Ordinary wires, even really good ones like copper, lose up to a third of the electricity they carry over long distances. But these materials, called superconductors, don’t lose any energy. Ever. You could start a current in a loop of superconducting wire and it would circle around, theoretically, forever.
Continue Reading

thenewenlightenmentage:

The science that stumped Einstein

In 1908, the physics world woke up to a puzzle whose layers have continued to stump the greatest scientists of the century ever since. That year, Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes cooled mercury down to -450° Fahrenheit and discovered—to his astonishment—that it could conduct electricity perfectly. And then for the next 50 years, no one could explain why.

Ordinary wires, even really good ones like copper, lose up to a third of the electricity they carry over long distances. But these materials, called , don’t lose any energy. Ever. You could start a current in a loop of superconducting wire and it would circle around, theoretically, forever.

Continue Reading

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